History of packaging and its types
History has shown that at the beginning of human civilization there was no need to pack food, but people went from place to place to get food until they found permanent shelters for themselves. In such a situation, they had to collect food from different places and bring it to their place of residence. In such a situation, they had to collect food from different places and bring it to their place of residence. In such a situation, they had to collect food from different places and bring it to their place of residence. They used animal horns to transport and store food and agricultural products (bamboo is still used for food storage in the tropics).
The emergence of the industrial revolution really created a fundamental change in the commodity production system. The industrial revolution faced the world with an explosion of various industrial goods. The diversity of goods and intense competition between manufacturers and traders gradually brought India into the packaging system in addition to other sciences. With further progress, other sciences such as individual psychology, social psychology and ergonomics were added to this collection. The development of packaging caused this industry to become independent from other industries, and the competition and need caused the packaging industry to allocate a significant share of the budgets of manufacturing companies.
Today, the packaging industry has become a powerful technology. The history of metal packaging, the need for better and more resistant packaging led to the emergence and development of metal containers. Canning began at the time of Napoleon. For a long time, cans were made by hand. From the beginning of the 20th century, metal cans that had a hygienic shape became popular and it became possible to use faster equipment to make, fill and close metal cans. The history of paper and cardboard packaging The history and evolution of packaging with cardboard and paper goes back to the history of paper making, although wood and its other by-products have been in the service of mankind for a long time, but packaging in the form of cardboard and paper after its creation The paper was created and it has completed its completion process quickly.
As we know, for the first time in three thousand years before Christ, the ancient Egyptians, who were considered one of the most important human centers at that time, used papyrus for writing. The first paper factory was built by the Chinese in Samarkand in the 6th century, and the Arabs taught them this art. Then the Arabs established a factory in Baghdad, where white cloth was used instead of bamboo for the first time.
The first European paper factory was established in Spain. The Spaniards used water mills to produce dough, and little by little wire nets replaced the bamboo nets used by the Chinese. Later, this art entered other countries such as France and the Netherlands. In Iran, after the Samarkand factory, which was managed by the Chinese, the first paper factory was built in 1328 in Kahrizog, which used waste paper to produce paper and cardboard, after that, a number of other production units were established in other parts of Iran. came into being Iran’s first modern factory was built in 1349 in “Seven Hills of Khuzestan” to produce writing paper using baggasse. Subsequently, Iran Wood and Paper Factory (Chuka) produced kraft paper and packaging using imported and domestic pulps. The history of plastic packaging The development of the plastic industry dates back to 1843, when the African surgeon Dr. Montgomery reported that a good knife handle could be made using the raw material of caoutchouc (Percha gutta). After the gutta percha company was formed, inkwells and billiard balls were also produced.
In relation to the packaging industry, an unexpected development occurred in England with the invention of polyethylene. In December 1935, British chemists achieved a new substance called ethylene through a reaction under high pressure and by changing the amount, which had good thermal insulation properties.
History of Glass Packaging Before the late 19th century, not only barley water, but also mineral water, sauces, pickles, jams, and other products previously sold loosely, were packaged for sale in glass containers. . The bottle was still produced in a relatively backward way. The bottles that were produced by blowing in the mold in this period had such strange shapes that until the First World War, any known glass that had an opening was called a bottle. But during the past centuries, bottle production gradually improved. With the production and mass production of bottles and the variety in their dimensions and volume, the current mankind has been able to consider glass containers as an important matter in packaging and to reveal its role to some extent. Today, more than hundreds of types of goods and materials are packed in glass packages and are offered to the market with superior quality. Of course, it should be noted that the science of glass and metalwork has existed in Iran since ancient times and is still growing.
The use of glass for packaging has always been on the rise after World War II. Because the fast and continuous production methods and the automation of bottle production and filling have given producers the opportunity to meet the demands and keep their prices low. As a result, researchers found ways to improve the mechanical and chemical resistance of glass containers as much as possible.
In general, it should be said that glass is an ideal material for packaging containers or a combination of its functionality, hygiene, and beauty. As a living example, it can be acknowledged that in many developed countries, the major food producers (especially children’s food) have included the use of glass containers in their work methods. With all this, although glass is a suitable material for packaging some materials, it is the best packaging material for some special goods.
b) HDPE high density polyethylene
Although these two polymers have the same chemical formula, their set of features are completely different from the practical point of view.
LDPE: It is usually used in the form of flexible thin films. Its two important features that make it more widely used, especially in the food product packaging industry, are:
1) Its neutrality means no reaction with the product
2) Its thermal sewing capability
For this reason, it is necessary to use LDPE thin film as the inner layer in direct contact with the product. This film is transparent and permeable to light. Therefore, in cases of need, it is used along with aluminum foil. The specific application of LDPE is in Tetra Pack packaging for sterile milk and fruit juice, Purepack for packaging pasteurized milk and yogurt, Triple Pack for bag packaging, three layers for pasteurized milk and five layers for sterile milk.
HDPE: This is a hard polymer material that is used for its strength and better barrier properties and lack of transparency. A clear example of the use of HDPE is a variety of milk bottles, to which white color (titanium dioxide) is added to improve the barrier against light penetration.
A) Plan P.P is simple, which is used to produce all kinds of plastic bottle caps. This P.P is also used in some cases to produce bottles.
b) Linearized Biorient P.P. During the production process, this material is placed under tensile force in two perpendicular directions, and as a result, a thin, transparent film with more barrier properties is produced, which is suitable for packing all kinds of chips, puffs, Pasta, peanuts and all snack foods are suitable.
b) Linearized Biorient P.P. During the production process, this material is placed under tensile force in two perpendicular directions, and as a result, a thin, transparent film with more barrier properties is produced, which is suitable for packing all kinds of chips, puffs, pasta, peanuts and all snack foods are suitable. It is used for paper in wafer packaging, chocolate, soup powder, it covers fat stains to some extent, and from this point of view, it has more applications in such products.
PET or Polyethylene terephthalate:
It is used in the packaging of soft drinks and liquid oil in the form of bottles, and the special way of shaping these types of bottles causes the following features:
1- The transparency of the bottle
2- Its superior barrier feature, especially against the penetration of gases.
3- The lightness of the bottle and its high mechanical resistance are provided.
This polymer material is also used in the form of a thin film, and in this case, the PET film provides the required strength of the package. Its example is in the packaging of fruit juices such as Sandis and Gladis products.
This material is simple and transparent and fragile and is used to produce disposable containers or trays. At the same time, it is a special type of impact-resistant or impact-resistant polystyrene, which is used in the production of this type of polystyrene. A type of plastic called H.I.PS is used, which makes it resistant to impact.
This type is used to produce yogurt containers and jams. Another type is Foomeel Poly Styrene, which is sometimes called Expanded. In the production process of this packaging material, volatile gases are used, which causes the expansion of the polymer tissue and creates hollow closed cells in the polymer tissue. First, such texture does not transfer the impact to the product, so it is suitable for fragile products, such as eggs; Secondly, it is a good thermal insulator and is suitable for the supply of ready-made hot products. Thirdly, the lightness of the polymer material makes it more suitable for transportation.
Nylon is widely used in meat products such as sausages, sausages, and polyamide with polyethylene is widely used in vacuum packaging of fresh meat and cheese.
PVDC or Poly Vinyl dene choloricle:
This polymer material is the best type of polymer material in terms of its barrier properties against the penetration of gases and moisture. A very thin film of it can provide the necessary barrier. Its flexibility is very good. For this reason, it is widely used for packing meat products and specifically for packing meat wholesale. In other words, in the packaging under vacuum, the type of polymer film that completely adheres to the surface of the product, this polymer material is used.